on Likert Management Systems
Dr Renesis Likert has studied human behaviour within many organisations. After
extensive research, Dr. Renesis Likert concluded that there are four systems
of management. According to Likert, the efficiency of an organisation
or its departments is influenced by their system of management. Likert
categorised his four management systems as follows;
Exploitive Authoritative System (1)
In this type of management system the job of employees/subordinates
is to abide by the decisions made by managers and those with a higher
status than them in the organisation. The subordinates do not participate
in the decision making. The organisation is concerned simply about completing
the work. The organisation will use fear and threats to make sure employees
complete the work set. There is no teamwork involved.
Benevolent Authoritative System (2)
Just as in an exploitive authoritative system, decisions are made by
those at the top of the organisation and management. However employees
are motivated through rewards (for their contribution) rather than fear
and threats. Information may flow from subordinates to managers but it
is restricted to “what management want to hear”.
Consultative System (3)
In this type of management system, subordinates are motivated by rewards
and a degree of involvement in the decision making process. Management
will constructively use their subordinates ideas and opinions. However
involvement is incomplete and major decisions are still made by senior
management. There is a greater flow of information (than in a benevolent
authoritative system) from subordinates to management. Although the information
from subordinate to manager is incomplete and euphemistic.
Participative/Group System (4)
Management have complete confidence in their subordinates/employees.
There is lots of communication and subordinates are fully involved in
the decision making process. Subordinates comfortably express opinions
and there is lots of teamwork. Teams are linked together by people, who
are members of more than one team. Likert calls people in more than one
group “linking pins”. Employees throughout the organisation
feel responsible for achieving the organisation’s objectives. This
responsibility is motivational especially as subordinates are offered
economic rewards for achieving organisational goals which they have participated
Likert's Ideal System
Likert believes that if an organisation is to achieve optimum effectiveness then the “ideal” system to adopt is Participative (system 4).